The Keenan Blog

Timely and informative posts written by our experts.


Preventing Heat Illness

August 05, 2022 by Trina Caton

Heat waves are the deadliest weather disasters in the United States. Cal/OSHA has urged all employers to protect outdoor workers from heat illness as temperatures in parts of California will frequently reach hazardous levels this summer. For the most updated information, the National Weather Service maintains a summary web page of California hazardous weather advisories and warnings, including dangerous hot weather.

California’s heat illness prevention standard , California Code of Regulations (CCR) section 3395, applies to all outdoor workers, including those in agriculture, construction and landscaping. Other workers protected by the standard include those that spend a significant amount of time working outdoors such as security guards, public works and groundskeepers, or in non-air-conditioned vehicles such as transportation and delivery drivers.

Assess your employees’ risk of heat illness by evaluating each worker’s duties and take appropriate steps to prevent them from getting sick. For example, the risk of heat illness is less for an installation worker who arrives in an air-conditioned vehicle and spends one hour working outdoors than for a driver who makes deliveries all day in a non-air-conditioned vehicle. Regardless of the level of risk, all outdoor workers must be protected equally and employers with outdoor workers must maintain an effective heat illness prevention plan year-round.

Employers with outdoor workers must take the following steps to prevent heat illness:

  • Plan – Develop and implement an effective written heat illness prevention plan that includes emergency response procedures.
  • Training – Train all employees and supervisors on heat illness prevention.
  • Water – Provide drinking water that is fresh, pure, suitably cool and free of charge so that each worker can drink at least one quart per hour and encourage workers to do so.
  • Shade – Provide shade when workers request it or when temperatures exceed 80 degrees. Encourage workers to take a cool-down rest in the shade for at least five minutes. They should not wait until they feel sick to cool down.

Additionally, the California heat illness prevention regulation prescribes the following High-Heat Procedures that should be implemented when the temperature equals or exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit. These procedures shall include the following to the extent practicable:

  1. Ensuring that effective communication by voice, observation, or electronic means is maintained so that employees at the work site can contact a supervisor when necessary. An electronic device, such as a cell phone or text messaging device, may be used for this purpose only if reception in the area is reliable.
  2. Observing employees for alertness and signs or symptoms of heat illness. The employer shall ensure effective employee observation/monitoring by implementing one or more of the following:
    • Supervisor or designee observation of 20 or fewer employees, or
    • Mandatory buddy system, or
    • Regular communication with sole employee such as by radio or cellular phone, or
    • Other effective means of observation.
  3. Designating one or more employees on each worksite as authorized to call for emergency medical services, and allowing other employees to call for emergency services when no designated employee is available.
  4. Reminding employees throughout the work shift to drink plenty of water.
  5. Pre-shift meetings before the commencement of work to review the high heat procedures, encourage employees to drink plenty of water, and remind employees of their right to take a cool-down rest when necessary.
  6. For employees employed in agriculture, the following shall also apply:
  7. When temperatures reach 95 degrees or above, the employer shall ensure that the employee takes a minimum ten-minute net preventative cool-down rest period every two hours. The preventative cool-down rest period may be provided concurrently with any other required meal or rest period.

    Cal/OSHA urges workers experiencing possible overheating to take a preventive cool-down rest in the shade until symptoms are gone. Workers who have existing health problems or medical conditions that reduce tolerance to heat, such as diabetes, need to be extra vigilant. Some medications can also increase a worker’s risk for heat illness and sensitivity to sun exposure.

    Supervisors must be effectively trained both to prevent heat illness and on emergency procedures in case a worker gets sick. Early recognition of the symptoms helps employees suffering the effects of dehydration and heat illness to receive immediate treatment to prevent more serious illness or death. All employees need to know the signs of dehydration and what to do before it turns into an emergency. Employees who have stopped sweating or who become disoriented are already in a serious situation. Everyone involved needs to be aware of these signs and must be empowered to report to their supervisor that a fellow worker appears to be suffering a heat injury. Reliable means for summoning emergency responders promptly must always be considered, especially in locations where cell phone coverage isn’t dependable.

    Cal/OSHA’s Heat Illness Prevention special emphasis program, the first of its kind in the nation, includes enforcement of heat regulations as well as multilingual outreach and training programs for California’s employers and workers. Details on heat illness prevention requirements and training materials are available online on Cal/OSHA’s Heat Illness Prevention web page and the Spanish language informational website. A Heat Illness Prevention online tool is also available on Cal/OSHA’s website. AP Keenan Loss Control Services specialists can assist in assessing occupational risks, training needs, planning and implementing appropriate measures to help keep workers safe.




About Trina Caton
Trina Caton is Assistant Vice President in AP Keenan’s Loss Control Department and is based in our Rancho Cordova office. Trina currently directs and oversees Loss Control internal operations/resources of the department statewide. Trina has provided loss control/risk management services for AP Keenan clients since 1993. She has a thorough knowledge of occupational and environmental regulations and is dedicated to making workplaces safer.